کاربرد پساب ثانویه تصفیه فاضلاب شهری در آبیاری زمین‎های کشاورزی: ارزیابی کمی خطر میکروبی لژیونلا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز مطالعات و توسعه آموزش پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی شهرکرد

2 اصفهان - دانشکده بهداشت - دانشگاه علوم پزشکی - گروه بهداشت محیط

3 دانشیار آمار و اپیدمیولوژی، گروه آمار و اپیدمیولوژی، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان

10.22112/jwwse.2021.261018.1231

چکیده

کمبود آب یک مسئله مهم در اکثر کشورهای جهان است. امروزه آبیاری با فاضلاب تصفیه شده درحال تبدیل شدن به یک گزینه ضروری برای رفع مشکلات کمبود آب به ویژه در کشورهای خشک و نیمه خشک است. خطرات بالقوه سلامتی و اثرات زیست محیطی ناشی از کیفیت میکروبی پایین فاضلاب تصفیه شده به‎خوبی شناخته شده و برای کشورهای در حال توسعه یک چالش است. در این مطالعه 25 نمونه پساب خروجی از تصفیه‎خانه فاضلاب اصفهان جمع‎آوری و حضور  لژیونلا در نمونه­های پساب با استفاده از روش Nested Real Time PCR پایش شد. هم‎چنین با استفاده از مدل ارزیابی کمی خطر میکروبی، ریسک لژیونلا ناشی از کاربرد پساب ثانویه برای آبیاری زمین‎های کشاورزی به‎روش اسپری، برای کشاورزان تعیین شد. لژیونلا در 84% نمونه‎های پساب یافت شد. میانگین ریسک بیماری سالانه   لژیونلا از 5-10 × 5/1 تا 8-10 × 7/7 بود که پایین‎تر از سطح مرجع10-3 pppy  پیشنهادی سازمان جهانی بهداشت است. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از پساب ثانویه، ریسک بهداشتی قابل‎توجه مرتبط با  لژیونلا برای کشاورزان ندارد. هم‎چنین پساب ثانویه می­تواند در نواحی نیمه خشک، به‎عنوان منبع جایگزین برای آبیاری در کشاورزی مورد استفاده قرار بگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 

Ajibode, O.M., Rock, C., Bright, K., Mclain, J.E., Gerba, C.P. and Pepper, I.L., (2013), “Influence of residence time of reclaimed water within distribution systems on water quality”, Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 3(3), 185-196.  

Armstrong, T.W., and Haas, C.N., (2007a), “A quantitative microbial risk assessment model for legionnaires' disease: Animal model selection and dose‐response modeling”, Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 27(6), 1581-1596. 

Armstrong, T.W. and Haas, C.N., (2007b), “Quantitative microbial risk assessment model for legionnaires' disease: Assessment of human exposures for selected spa outbreaks”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 4(8), 634-646. 

Armstrong, T.W. and Haas, C.N., (2008), “Legionnaires' disease: Evaluation of a quantitative microbial risk assessment model”, Journal of Water and Health, 6(2), 149-166. 

Asghari, F.B., Nikaeen, M., Hatamzadeh, M., and Hassanzadeh, A., (2013), “Surveillance of legionella species in hospital water systems: The significance of detection method for environmental surveillance data”,  Journal of Water and Health, 11(4), 713-719. 

Ayers, R., and Westcot, D., (1985), Water quality for agriculture. fao irrigation and drainage, paper 29 rev. 1, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, 1, 74.

Bahri, A., Drechsel, P., Raschid-sally, L., and Redwood, M., (2009), Wastewater irrigation and health: Assessing and mitigating risk in low-income countries”, Routledge.

Becerra-Castro, C., Lopes, A.R., Vaz-moreira, I., Silva, E.F., Manaia, C.M., and Nunes, O.C., (2015), “Wastewater reuse in irrigation: A microbiological perspective on implications in soil fertility and human and environmental health”, Environment International, 75(2), 117-135.

Bitton, G., (2005). Wastewater microbiology, John Wiley & Sons.

Blanky, M., Rodríguez-martínez, S., Halpern, M., and Friedler, E., (2015), “Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment”, Science of the Total Environment, 533(22), 557-565.

Blanky, M., Sharaby, Y., Rodríguez-martínez, S., Halpern, M. and Friedler, E., (2017), “Greywater reuse-assessment of the health risk induced by legionella pneumophila”, Water Research, 125(18), 410-417.

Caicedo, C., Beutel, S., Scheper, T., Rosenwinkel, K., and Nogueira, R., (2016), “Occurrence of legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(16), 16873-16881.

Catalan, V., Garcia, F., Moreno, C., Vila, M., and Apraiz, D., (1997), “Detection of legionella pneumophila in wastewater by nested polymerase chain reaction”, Research in Microbiology, 148(1), 71-78.

Chhipi-Shrestha, G., Hewage, K., and Sadiq, R., (2017), “Microbial quality of reclaimed water for urban reuses: Probabilistic risk-based investigation and recommendations”, Science of The Total Environment, 576(15), 738-751.

Elgallal, M., Fletcher, L., and Evans, B., (2016), “Assessment of potential risks associated with chemicals in wastewater used for irrigation in arid and semiarid zones: A review”, Agricultural Water Management, 177, 419-431.

Hamilton, K.A., Hamilton, M.T., Johnson, W., Jjemba, P., Bukhari, Z., Lechevallier, M., and Haas, C.N., (2018), “Health risks from exposure to legionella in reclaimed water aerosols: Toilet flushing, spray irrigation, and cooling towers”, Water Research, 134(7), 261-279.

Jasim, S.Y., Saththasivam, J., Loganathan, K., Ogunbiyi, O.O., and Sarp, S., (2016), “Reuse of treated sewage effluent (tse) in qatar”,  Journal of Water Process Engineering, 11(3), 174-182.

Jjemba, P.K., Johnson, W., Bukhari, Z., and Lechevallier, M.W., (2015), “Occurrence and control of legionella in recycled water systems”, Pathogens, 4(3), 470-502.

Jjemba, P.K., Weinrich, L.A., Cheng, W., Giraldo, E., and Lechevallier, M.W., (2010), “Regrowth of potential opportunistic pathogens and algae in reclaimed-water distribution systems”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(13), 4169-4178.

Lehane, S., (2014). The Iranian water crisis, Strategic Analysis Paper, Global Food and Water Crises Research Programme, Future Directions International Pty Ltd.: Perth, Australia, 11.

Mirzaee, S.A., Nikaeen, M., Hajizadeh, Y., Nabavi, B.F., and Hassanzadeh, A., (2015), “Detection of legionella spp. by a nested-pcr assay in air samples of a wastewater treatment plant and downwind distances in isfahan”, Advanced Biomedical Research, 4(48), 1-4.

WHO, (2006), Guidelines for the safe use of wasterwater excreta and greywater, Geneva, Switzerland.

Pepper, I.L., and Gerba, C.P., (2018), “Risk of infection from legionella associated with spray irrigation of reclaimed water”, Water Research, 139(12), 101-107.

Prussin ii, A.J., Schwake, D.O., and Marr, L.C., (2017). “Ten questions concerning the aerosolization and transmission of legionella in the built environment”, Building and Environment, 123(13), 684-695.

Scheierling, S.M., Bartone, C.R., Mara, D.D., and Drechsel, P., (2011), “Towards an agenda for improving wastewater use in agriculture”, Water International, 36(4), 420-440.

 
Ajibode, O.M., Rock, C., Bright, K., Mclain, J.E., Gerba, C.P. and Pepper, I.L., (2013), “Influence of residence time of reclaimed water within distribution systems on water quality”, Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 3(3), 185-196.  
Armstrong, T.W., and Haas, C.N., (2007a), “A quantitative microbial risk assessment model for legionnaires' disease: Animal model selection and dose‐response modeling”, Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 27(6), 1581-1596. 
Armstrong, T.W. and Haas, C.N., (2007b), “Quantitative microbial risk assessment model for legionnaires' disease: Assessment of human exposures for selected spa outbreaks”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 4(8), 634-646. 
Armstrong, T.W. and Haas, C.N., (2008), “Legionnaires' disease: Evaluation of a quantitative microbial risk assessment model”, Journal of Water and Health, 6(2), 149-166. 
Asghari, F.B., Nikaeen, M., Hatamzadeh, M., and Hassanzadeh, A., (2013), “Surveillance of legionella species in hospital water systems: The significance of detection method for environmental surveillance data”,  Journal of Water and Health, 11(4), 713-719. 
Ayers, R., and Westcot, D., (1985), Water quality for agriculture. fao irrigation and drainage, paper 29 rev. 1, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, 1, 74.
Bahri, A., Drechsel, P., Raschid-sally, L., and Redwood, M., (2009), Wastewater irrigation and health: Assessing and mitigating risk in low-income countries”, Routledge.
Becerra-Castro, C., Lopes, A.R., Vaz-moreira, I., Silva, E.F., Manaia, C.M., and Nunes, O.C., (2015), “Wastewater reuse in irrigation: A microbiological perspective on implications in soil fertility and human and environmental health”, Environment International, 75(2), 117-135.
Bitton, G., (2005). Wastewater microbiology, John Wiley & Sons.
Blanky, M., Rodríguez-martínez, S., Halpern, M., and Friedler, E., (2015), “Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment”, Science of the Total Environment, 533(22), 557-565.
Blanky, M., Sharaby, Y., Rodríguez-martínez, S., Halpern, M. and Friedler, E., (2017), “Greywater reuse-assessment of the health risk induced by legionella pneumophila”, Water Research, 125(18), 410-417.
Caicedo, C., Beutel, S., Scheper, T., Rosenwinkel, K., and Nogueira, R., (2016), “Occurrence of legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(16), 16873-16881.
Catalan, V., Garcia, F., Moreno, C., Vila, M., and Apraiz, D., (1997), “Detection of legionella pneumophila in wastewater by nested polymerase chain reaction”, Research in Microbiology, 148(1), 71-78.
Chhipi-Shrestha, G., Hewage, K., and Sadiq, R., (2017), “Microbial quality of reclaimed water for urban reuses: Probabilistic risk-based investigation and recommendations”, Science of The Total Environment, 576(15), 738-751.
Elgallal, M., Fletcher, L., and Evans, B., (2016), “Assessment of potential risks associated with chemicals in wastewater used for irrigation in arid and semiarid zones: A review”, Agricultural Water Management, 177, 419-431.
Hamilton, K.A., Hamilton, M.T., Johnson, W., Jjemba, P., Bukhari, Z., Lechevallier, M., and Haas, C.N., (2018), “Health risks from exposure to legionella in reclaimed water aerosols: Toilet flushing, spray irrigation, and cooling towers”, Water Research, 134(7), 261-279.
Jasim, S.Y., Saththasivam, J., Loganathan, K., Ogunbiyi, O.O., and Sarp, S., (2016), “Reuse of treated sewage effluent (tse) in qatar”,  Journal of Water Process Engineering, 11(3), 174-182.
Jjemba, P.K., Johnson, W., Bukhari, Z., and Lechevallier, M.W., (2015), “Occurrence and control of legionella in recycled water systems”, Pathogens, 4(3), 470-502.
Jjemba, P.K., Weinrich, L.A., Cheng, W., Giraldo, E., and Lechevallier, M.W., (2010), “Regrowth of potential opportunistic pathogens and algae in reclaimed-water distribution systems”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(13), 4169-4178.
Lehane, S., (2014). The Iranian water crisis, Strategic Analysis Paper, Global Food and Water Crises Research Programme, Future Directions International Pty Ltd.: Perth, Australia, 11.
Mirzaee, S.A., Nikaeen, M., Hajizadeh, Y., Nabavi, B.F., and Hassanzadeh, A., (2015), “Detection of legionella spp. by a nested-pcr assay in air samples of a wastewater treatment plant and downwind distances in isfahan”, Advanced Biomedical Research, 4(48), 1-4.
WHO, (2006), Guidelines for the safe use of wasterwater excreta and greywater, Geneva, Switzerland.
Pepper, I.L., and Gerba, C.P., (2018), “Risk of infection from legionella associated with spray irrigation of reclaimed water”, Water Research, 139(12), 101-107.
Prussin ii, A.J., Schwake, D.O., and Marr, L.C., (2017). “Ten questions concerning the aerosolization and transmission of legionella in the built environment”, Building and Environment, 123(13), 684-695.
Scheierling, S.M., Bartone, C.R., Mara, D.D., and Drechsel, P., (2011), “Towards an agenda for improving wastewater use in agriculture”, Water International, 36(4), 420-440.