آنتی بیوتیک‎ها و مقاومت آنتی‎بیوتیکی در منابع آب و فاضلاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات آلاینده های محیطی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی قم، قم، ایران.

2 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی خوی، خوی، ایران

3 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی خوی، خوی، ایران.

4 گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت،دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران، ایران، تهران

10.22112/jwwse.2020.157834.1121

چکیده

آنتی‎بیوتیک­ها مبتنی بر اهداف درمانی انسانی، حیوانی و بهبود رشد درکشاورزی، تولید و  به‎صورت وسیع مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرند. علی‎رغم تاثیرات مثبت، مقاومت آنتی­بیوتیکی به یکی از چالش‎های مهم قرن حاضر تبدیل شده است. مقاومت آنتی‎بیوتیکی کلیه بخش‎های محیط­زیست را درگیر می‎کند و با فشار بر روی گروه­های میکروبی منجر به انتشار مقاومت آنتی‎بیوتیکی و در نهایت تغییر اکولوژیکی در منابع زیست محیطی می‎شود. مقاومت آنتی‎بیوتیکی می‎تواند از باکتری‎های پاتوژن به باکتری‎های غیر پاتوژن و باکتری‎های بومی منتقل شود. این عوامل به‎ویژه از طریق فاضلاب خام و پساب خروجی از تصفیه‎خانه‎های فاضلاب وارد محیط شده و منابع آب و خاک را آلوده می­کنند. تصفیه‎خانه­های آب به‎صورت کامل توان حذف باکتری­ها و ژن­های کد کننده مقاومت آن‏ها را ندارند، درنتیجه این عوامل وارد شبکه توزیع آب می‎شوند و مستقیما مصرف کننده نهائی آب را در معرض خطر قرار می‎دهند. این نوشتار مقاومت آنتی‎بیوتیکی در منابع محیطی و عوامل موثر بر انتشار آن‎را مورد ارزیابی قرار می دهد و بر نقش سازمان‎ها و مسئولین در آسیب‎شناسی این عوامل آلاینده در منابع محیطی، ارتباط آن‎ها با محیط‎های درمانی و کاربرد روش‎های کنترلی تاکید می‎کند.

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